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Sunday, June 07, 2009

Angels & Demons, Atlantis & Anti-Matter

Another point of view: Introducing the space-time helix and the possible destruction of all matter http://www.spacetimehelix.com/ We should be careful not to jump to conclusions with only “bits” of scientific information, nor act on short sighted scientific information which might only be a tangent, offshoot of Reality. Historically, expanding our window of scientific data to reality changed our view of a flat earth to a round one. We are far, far from done with our expanding point of view of reality. In fact, we are far behind and dangerously so. Top Secret, Need to Know philosophies have never favored the continuity of life. (see below Space-Time Helix article end for 'dust ball' analogy and extrapolate the analogy to adults and PhD's possessing only Bits of information with potentially unfathomable deadly consequences. It pays not to destroy the vast richness of human history, human evolutionary potential, and lessons learned from our educational systems by replacing wholesome education with robot, disconnected, specialized, corporate slave sponsored and censored education. The deadly consequences of "dumbed down" go far beyond the trouble with physics and the idling Standard Model).



Fables from Atlantis: ………“so the One Substance responds at 831,000,000,000,000; at, again, the next octave of vibration, and again at the next, where it becomes visible as the fatal Unfed Light, last form of matter below where matter ceases and mind begins, called in Atla the “Maxin,” and again, by the Tchin as the “Vis Mortuus.”


“The Atlanteans used laser rays & crystals to fuel their power plants. There was a huge "Firestone", with power generated by filtering the rays of the sun through ruby prisms, which concentrated energy upon instruments connected in the transportation complex by remote control. Inside a huge dome with a sliding roof, cosmic energy stations transmitted beams that could be turned up so high, they became the famous Death Ray. (according to Ruth Montgomery, and Edgar Cayce in their metaphysical receiving sessions) “ Scientists also perfected Anti-matter. When a beam of anti-matter comes in contact with ordinary matter, it instantaneously converted it into invisible energy. In other words, it vaporized it!

Reality from Cern and ....NIF, National Ignition Facility https://lasers.llnl.gov/: …………” Antimatter is the mirror image of conventional matter with opposite properties. Antimatter is destroyed whenever it collides with matter, turning both into bursts of electromagnetic radiation. Scientists believe this process was crucial to the fiery creation of the universe billions of years ago. Why so little antimatter is made now in nature remains one of physics' great dilemmas. Only modest levels have been detected in cosmic ray showers and the nuclei of distant galaxies. Antimatter is difficult to make in the lab, too. Giant particle accelerators at CERN and Fermilab near Chicago specialize in the quest. In the first antimatter experiments a few years ago, only dozens of short-lived antimatter particles were created.


Hydrogen, the most abundant element, consists of an electron orbiting a proton. Antihydrogen is the exact opposite; a positron -- an electron with a positive charge -- orbiting an antiproton, or a proton with a negative charge. In the latest experiments, ATHENA researchers used the CERN accelerator to create antiprotons and electromagnetically trapped them in a vacuum chamber. A radioactive source, meanwhile, was used to create positrons, which were held in a separate trap. The antiprotons were then fed into the pool of positrons, where the two combined to form antihydrogen. The antimatter was short-lived; Hangst said it was annihilated when it bumped into normal matter. Detectors picked up the unique signatures of antimatter as it was destroyed, he said. Using antimatter to power a starship or create a weapon, meanwhile, is still in the realm of science fiction, he said. Making antiprotons requires 10 billion times more energy than it produces. For example, the antimatter produced each year at CERN could power a 100 watt light bulb for 15 minutes, Hangst said.

NIF The National Ignition Facility https://lasers.llnl.gov/
video
The National Ignition Facility: Ushering in a New Age for Science The world's largest and highest-energy laser was formally dedicated on May 29, 2009. In 2010, NIF will begin experiments that will focus the intense energy of 192 giant laser beams on a BB-sized target filled with hydrogen fuel. NIF's goal is to fuse the hydrogen atoms' nuclei and produce net energy gain – the same fusion energy process that makes stars shine and provides the life-giving energy of the sun. Scientists have been working to achieve self-sustaining nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory for more than half a century. When the National Ignition Facility (NIF) begins ignition experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2010, that long-sought goal will be much closer to realization.
NIF's 192 giant lasers, housed in a ten-story building the size of three football fields, will deliver at least 60 times more energy than any previous laser system. When all of its beams are fully operational, NIF will focus nearly two million joules of ultraviolet laser energy on a tiny target in the center of its target chamber – creating conditions similar to those that exist only in the cores of stars and giant planets and inside a nuclear weapon. The resulting fusion reaction will release many times more energy than the laser energy required to initiate the reaction.


Another Point of View http://www.spacetimehelix.com/

INTRODUCING THE SPACE-TIME HELIX AND THE POSSIBLE DESTRUCTION OF ALL MATTER
By Roland Weiss Clopton….. For over a century, since Albert Einstein published his first paper on relativity in 1905, physicists have struggled to resolve fundamental differences between quantum theory and the continuum or field theory. The field approach must have no singularities; but the quantum approach has only singularities….. Regardless, whatever final model ultimately emerges will look very much like the Clopton Model, incorporating infinite extension, the speed of light, rotation, proto-mass and proto-charge, which sounds very much like dark energy and dark matter theorized today. Current theories were all built on the paradigm of flat non-reactive space and billiard ball matter. It has been my intent to demonstrate that space is underlaid by a highly reactive matrix comprised of the space-time helix……. If the Clopton Model is true, NIF machinery has the potential to destroy both space and time, and wipe out all record of human existence in a new type of fire
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Questions Left Unanswered by Physical Science 2. Introducing the Space-time Helix (STH) 3. The Meaning of E = mc2
4. Relativistic Time Dilation, Relativistic Mass Increase, and Lorentz-Einstein Contraction 5. Space-time and Dark Matter 6. Speed of Light
7. Where Does Mass Come From? 8. Where Does Charge Come From? 9. What Is a Proton and Electron? 10. What Is a Neutron and a Neutrino?
11. What Is a Photon? 12. What Is Electromagnetic Radiation? 13. What Is Electricity? 14. What is a Force? 15. Electrostatic Charge 16. Magnetism
17. Gravity 18. Inertia 19. Right Hand Rule 20. Unlimited Power by STH Coupling 21. Chemical Bonding 22. Power Source for the Universe
23. Conservation Laws 24. What Is Antimatter? 25. What Are Short-lived Particles? 26. Particle Spin 27. High Energy Particles and Cosmic Radiation
28. Avogadro’s Number 29. Brownian Motion 30. Continuum – Quantum Commonality 31. Big Bang and the Shape of the Universe
32. Background Radiation 33. Is the Expansion Rate of the Universe Accelerating? 34. Dark Energy 35. An Imminent Danger 36. Closing Comments


The dangers of “bits” of scientific information, or acting on short sighted scientific information which might be only a tangent, offshoot of Reality.

Dust balls.
Dr. Lloyd E. Cannon once reflected on this story: The child who was informed by his Sunday School teacher, "from dust ye came, and to dust ye shall return," (no doubt referring to Wise King Solomon’s words: "All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all turn to dust again.")
At home the little boy happened to roll a ball under the bed, and came running to his mother, exclaiming excitedly, "Mommy, Mommy, come quick! There is somebody in the bedroom under the bed!:" Showing his mother the rolls of dust underneath the bed, the little boy said, "see, he is either coming or going."
That pile of dust signified to the little lad just one thing, from that "bit of knowledge" he had recently acquired, to him God was in the process of creating another man, or of taking one away.

..........repeating from blog "Traveling at Warp Speed" - how could any intelligent species sit for 100 years upon such delusional concepts of: "as an object travels faster and faster, its mass increases," or "As an object approaches the speed of light its mass becomes infinite." The obvious subsequent realization of such a short sighted error swiftly corrects to - the 'increasing mass' of the target is only the measure of the kinetic energy differential which exists between them (specified reference points between which measurements are made - else measurement is meaningless). The mass approaches infinity only as the energy level approaches that of the accelerating force. In the case of the quantity C, usually called the velocity of light (VC), the differential is equal to 3 x 10(10) centimeters per second, or if we convert this velocity to its equivalent energy we would have 9 x 10(20) ergs per gram of mass - further notating a most significant relationship property of light/energy and mass/matter: the VC energy differential is also exactly equal to the total energy inherent in any gram of matter, resulting in the natural outcome, that the quantity C is the radius of the curvature of natural law, simply meaning, that if a differential of energy equal to this quantity exists between the observer and the point which he is observing, the natural laws will be suspended. If the energy differential is in excess of the quantity C, the laws will appear to operate in reverse at that point. Since the velocity of light energy differential can also manifest as a frequency, polarizing gravity becomes possible at the local, here and now, level. (StarSteps)

Saturday, March 15, 2008

Black Hole Look Alikes:
Illusions Delusions and Real

Galaxy Birth Processes
"....If we were to direct a large telescope on earth towards this gas cloud, we would not be able to see it at all. Since all of the light coming from the galaxies behind it is now being absorbed, we would see only that there was an unusually large dark area in space. We would probably refer to it as a 'dark nebula,' a tremendous body of gas, still somewhat rarefied according to our usual concept of gas; which emits no light, but which does absorb, and convert to lower frequencies, almost all of the light, and other forms of radiant energy which reach it from the countless radiating stars throughout the universe."
"......We must recall at this point, that it is the central spheroid of the galaxy which is formed first. It is in the central portion, that planets would first reach conditions suitable for life, and it is upon these planets that life would first achieve a high degree of development. Intelligent life might therefore be said to radiate from the center of a galaxy outward toward the periphery. A process which might take place over a period of several millions of years after the first race had achieved space travel.It is with this thought, and in a very humble frame of mind that we begin our return journey to our tiny planet earth; located almost on the extreme outer edge of our own galaxy."


At this point in our progress of understanding, we shall embark upon a most ambitious journey. We are going out into space. Into the remotest depths of inter galactic space, so that we may observe, at close range, the birth processes of a new star cluster or 'Galaxy.' We will take along our consciousness, our ability to observe, and our understanding. We must, of course, leave our bodies behind, since they would not fare well in space, and also because their mass would create a gravitational field which would tend to alter the natural conditions at our point of observation. We will seek a spot which is at least a few million light years distant from any other galaxy or accumulation of matter; for it is only within these remote areas that we may observe the birth process of a new galaxy.
In the first part of this book, we discussed the almost inconceivably large number of particles which are found in each cubic inch of our atmosphere at sea level. As we move outward from the earth's surface we find that the number of particles diminishes rapidly, but still remains surprisingly large. When we have reached a height of one hundred miles we find that there are only about one millionth as many particles per cubic inch as we found at the surface, this is a density of matter so minute that we require very sensitive instruments, even to detect its existence. Yet, if we count the individual particles, we will find that there are still about 400 million, million particles in each cubic inch of space. At a few hundred miles elevation the density has diminished another million times, and we say that we have entered 'space', yet there are still many millions of particles per cubic inch.
We come to the startling realization that there simply is no such thing as 'empty space.' Astronomers have estimated that even in the remotest depths of intergalactic space, (which is our destination on this trip) there will still be found from twenty five to seventy five or more nuclear or atomic particles per cubic inch. Most of these particles are protons, or simple atoms which have attained escape velocity from the surfaces of some star, and which may have been wandering aimlessly about, perhaps for billions of years, coming into occasional collision with ocher particles, but usually with sufficient relative velocity so that mutual capture could not take place.
In the vicinity of existing galaxies, the gravitational fields created by the innumerable stars within those galaxies, tend to draw in the random particles, many of which eventually fall into one or another of the stars, and thereby assist somewhat in replenishing the mass which each star is constantly converting into energy.
We must, therefore, seek a spot which is remote from any of the existing galaxies, and approximately equidistant from the nearer ones. Even in this remote area of space we will find countless numbers of particles of matter, anti units of charge; electrons, protons or simple atoms, which have achieved escape velocity from some star, or which have been formed in space by random approach and capture. In short, we have all of the building blocks of nature, present in an exceedingly tenuous and diffuse state.
Since each of the particles of matter has mass, each has a force of attraction existing between it and ever other particle of matter in the area.
If we accept the concept of the non linearity of natural law as previously outlined in this text, we find that each of these particles is also being repelled slightly by the surrounding galaxies or galactic clusters.
These forces are almost inconceivably small, yet the net result of their action is to create a tendency upon the part of each randomly moving particle to move ever closer to the center of the area of attraction, which is also approximately but not exactly the center or 'null balance' point of the repulsion of the surrounding galaxies.
We will assume that we have now reached the point from which we will observe the birth of our new galaxy. This point is at the center of a sphere of space, perhaps thirty thousand light years in diameter, within which the final concentration of matter will take place.
We must be prepared to exercise a great deal of patience, because the forces involved, and the resulting accelerations are so minute that many millions of years will probably elapse before we can detect any significant increase in the number of particles per unit of volume. Nevertheless, all of the particles within several hundreds of thousands of light years are slowly but surely acquiring a velocity in our direction.
As the concentration of matter at the center of our system increases, the intensity of its field will also increase and will add, not only to the velocity, but also to the acceleration of the inward moving particles. We are observing the condensation of a tremendously large volume of exceedingly ratified gas into a relatively small volume.
Let us assume that one hundred million years have passed since we first occupied our point of observation at the center of the newly forming galaxy. All of the particles within some thousands of light years have now acquired a very respectable velocity in our direction, and the density of the gas surrounding us is increasing with comparative rapidity. We observe however, that the particles are not falling directly toward the central point of the condensation.
We can understand this if we realize that the center or null point of the force of repulsion is determined only by the distribution and the distance of the surrounding galaxies, while the center of the force of attraction is determined by the distribution of matter within the area of condensation. Since the center of 'push' is not at the same point as the center of 'pull', there is a tendency toward the creation of an angular velocity. That is: the particles, instead of falling directly toward the center, will tend to spiral inward. Eventually this rotational motion will become general throughout the mass.
The plane in which this spin begins is determined by the location of the existing galaxies and the relative density of particles in different parts of the condensing mass, but once begun, the motion tends constantly to increase as the condensation proceeds.
The particles which are upon either side of the central plane of spin tend to fall toward the plane as well as toward the center, while those particles which are nearly perpendicular to the center of the plane of spin rend to fall inward more rapidly because of their smaller rotational velocities. Our gas cloud now begins to take on the shape of a disk with a somewhat oblate sphere at the center. The galaxy has begun to assume its final shape, though as yet, there are no stars within it nor does it emir any light.
If we were to direct a large telescope on earth towards this gas cloud, we would not be able to see it at all. Since all of the light coming from the galaxies behind it is now being absorbed, we would see only that there was an unusually large dark area in space. We would probably refer to it as a 'dark nebula,' a tremendous body of gas, still somewhat rarefied according to our usual concept of gas; which emits no light, but which does absorb, and convert to lower frequencies, almost all of the light, and other forms of radiant energy which reach it from the countless radiating stars throughout the universe.
As the nebula continues to contract, areas of comparatively high density will develop in many parts of the mass. Each of these points will become a local center of gravity, and accelerated condensation will occur towards these points.
The gas cloud now becomes broken up into a multitude of individual spheres, each of which continues to condense upon its own center, just as a cloud condenses into myriads of tiny water droplets.
Let us now direct our attention to one of these 'droplets' which is eventually to become a star in our new galaxy. It is still several millions of miles in diameter, but shrinking rapidly.
As the gas cloud condenses, the energy which it contains, becomes concentrated. The particles which while they were drifting about in space, had almost infinitely long 'mean free paths’, now come into more and more frequent and more and more violent collisions.
The temperature of the mass constantly rises. The kinetic energy which the particles have been building up during the millions of years while they were accelerating toward the common center, is now being converted into thermal energy. Eventually the mass begins to emit photons having frequencies in the visible portion of the spectrum.
We can now say that the star has been 'born', although it may still have more resemblance to a nebula, than to a star. A great deal more contraction will take place before the internal pressure of the gas begins to balance the gravitational force.
The star which we have chosen for observation is one of the millions which are forming within the central portion of the nebula. Since the nebula was created by the gradual inward movement of particles from an immense volume of space, it is apparent that it is within the spherical area at the center that the gas will first achieve a density sufficient for the process of condensation into separate stars to begin.
By this time the entire nebula has acquired a fairly uniform rotation about its center of mass. The individual stars, during their condensation, will of course retain this rotation but will also develop a rotational motion about their own center of gravity.
As the gas at the core of the new star becomes denser, the gravitational field becomes more and more intense, and the surrounding matter falls, with ever increasing rapidity toward the center.
Most of the gas which, even during the dark nebula stage, occupied dozens of cubic light years, of space, now is compressed into a sphere only a few million miles in diameter.
Earlier in this text we observed that the temperature of a given gas will be inversely proportionate to the volume which that gas occupies, so long as the total thermal energy contained remains the same.
The gas which we are observing is now billions of times more densely packed than it was when the condensation began, and the temperature has risen from a fraction of a degree absolute, to several millions of degrees. This temperature continues to rise as the high kinetic energy which the incoming particles have acquired during their long fall, is converted into thermal energy as those particles impact the randomly moving particles at the surface of the star.
The condensation of the star, from the dark nebula to its present state of development has been comparatively rapid, only a few million years being required for the process. Most of the matter available to the star has now formed into a fairly compact spheroid, and comparatively little new matter is arriving at the surface.
As the mass continues to contract, the temperature within the body of the star continues to rise, but because of the tremendous amount of radiant energy which is now escaping from the surface, its temperature will remain far below that of the interior.
The star is now a member of the class which Walter Baade, then a member of the Mount Wilson Observatory staff, named Population I, a blue white star with a surface temperature of the order of 30,000 degrees absolute, and an internal temperature of several millions of degrees. It is emitting light and heat energy at a rate much greater than can be replaced by the comparatively small amount of material which is still falling into it from the nebular cloud.
If the life process of the star ended here, its period of luminescence would be very short. Within a few thousands of years, the surface temperature would begin to fall below the point of incandescence and the star would appear as a dull red body. The continuing contraction of its mass might maintain the star in this condition for a few thousands of years more, but eventually the surface would become almost entirely dark, and a liquid or solid crust would probably begin to form.
We know, however, even from our relatively short history of astronomical observations, that the active period of a star is much greater than this. Let us, therefore, return to our nuclear scale of observation to determine the source from which the star receives its continuing supply of energy.
We must remember that much of the matter which forms our new star, consists of atoms which, eons ago, escaped from the surface of some other star. Since the atom of normal hydrogen (1H1) is the lightest of the atom family, it will acquire, at a given energy level, a greater velocity than any other atom, and since velocity is the principal factor in the escape of atoms from the gravitational field of a star, we would assume that most of the particles to be found in open space would be hydrogen atoms.
The new, star, which is simply a condensation of these particles, would also be assumed to consist principally of hydrogen.
This fact, which we can predict from our simple study of the behavior of atomic particles, has been verified many times by spectrographic analysis of the newer stars in presently existing galaxies.
Let us examine the interior of the star, to see if we can discover the source of its great energy supply. (Since we left our bodies at home when we embarked upon this extra-galactic tour, we will not be unduly inconvenienced by the high temperatures and pressures which exist in the regions in which we must conduct our observations.)
As we approach the star, we first pass through a region which, in the case of our sun, we call the corona. It is the area about a star where the incoming particles first meet resistance in their long fall. The corona is a belt of exceedingly tenuous gas whose particles have random motions. This layer of gas is much like the upper layers of the earth's atmosphere except that its temperature is very much higher. We must remember that the tremendous gravitational field of the star is attracting particles from all parts of the space surrounding it, and that they acquire very high velocities. As they fall through the star's outer layer of gas, sooner or later, each falling particle comes into direct collision with a particle of the corona gas. The linear kinetic energy is converted to radiant energy of high intensity. We observe temperatures of one trillion degrees Fahrenheit and more. The gas is, however, so ratified that the total amount of heat created per unit volume of space is small compared to the much greater quantities of energy which are being radiated from lower levels.
After we have descended through the corona, we encounter another layer of gas, much denser than the gas of the corona. This layer we will call the photosphere, because it is within this layer that most of the visible light which the star radiates, is created.
Here the temperature, as measured by the activity of the particles, is much lower, only about 11,000 degrees F, yet the gas is so much denser that the energy contained per unit volume, is many times greater than that of the corona.
The photosphere is essentially the receiving and shipping department of the star, receiving great quantities of energy from deeper levels, and radiating that energy into space in a never ending stream.
As we descend deeper into the body of the star, we find that the temperature and the pressure constantly increase. This means, of course, that as the gas becomes denser, the mean free path of the particles is becoming shorter, and their velocity is ever increasing. The frequency and violence with which the particles impact each other becomes almost impossible to describe or imagine.
As we approach the central core of the star, we find temperatures upward of twenty millions of degrees, and pressures in the billions of pounds per square inch.
Although the material is still technically a gas, because all of the particles have velocities greater than their escape velocity from each other, its density is now about ten times that of solid steel.
If we remember that in our atmosphere at 32°F and only 14.7 lbs. per square inch, the average particle has a velocity of 1760 feet per second, and undergoes five billion collisions per second, it may give us some faint comprehension of the number and violence of the collisions which take place between the particles deep within the body of a star.
We see that the shell of force which the planetary electrons create about the nucleus, is not sufficient to withstand impacts of this order, and the nucleus is soon stripped of its planetary electrons. When the bare nuclei impact other bare nuclei at this energy level we see that fusion of the two may, and frequently does take place.
The fusion of two nuclei results in the formation of a single nucleus which has a mass slightly smaller than that of the two parts from which it was created. The mass which is lost, appears as a tremendous burst of radiant energy, most of which subsequently is converted to heat. We note that this fusion or joining together of nuclear particles may occur in a number of ways, but in every case where the resultant nucleus has a mass smaller than the mass of the atom of silver, large quantities of heat will be released as a result of the combination.
We also observe that when the mass of the resultant nucleus is greater than the mass of an atom of silver, a large quantity of energy is absorbed rather than radiated, but this event occurs so infrequently that only an insignificant amount of energy is thus subtracted from the total. It is this energy of fusion which constantly replaces that which is being radiated into space from the surface of the star.
The process of fusion also gradually builds up heavier elements from the hydrogen building blocks which were the principal material of the new star. Consequently we would assume that the life expectancy of a given star is determined largely by the amount of hydrogen which it has available for fusion.
If the principal subject of our study were astronomy rather than the larger field of cosmology, we might devote several chapters to the examination of the inherent stabilities and instabilities which affect the process of fusion within a star. If we had a few billion years to spare, we might watch the infant as it changed slowly from a medium sized blue white star, to a somewhat smaller and denser white, until the ever increasing instabilities of the nuclear reactions within it finally overcame the stabilizing factors, and the entire star suddenly erupted in the tremendous blast of inconceivable energy which we call a nova.
After a few months we would see all of the material which had not been blasted irretrievably into space, slowly settle back into a very small and exceedingly dense core which we would describe as a red dwarf.
Since we have already spent many millions of years in this observational expedition, perhaps it is time for us to consider returning to earth. After all, there are many interesting things going on there too!
Before we leave, however, there is one more pattern of development which we should observe because it is, to our own egos at least, the most important of all.
In the star which we have been observing, the condensation took place in a symmetrical manner, with the result that a single sphere was formed. If we had been able to observe all of the stellar condensations simultaneously, we would have observed that in approximately one our of four or five cases, the condensation did not proceed symmetrically. The reason for this is found in the position and size of neighboring condensations. As in the case of the galactic nebula, the stellar gas cloud also begins to rotate as it condenses, and again a plane of spin is created.
The particles outside this plane of spin tend to fall toward the plane as well as toward the center. As the rate of spin increases, the gas at some distance from the center, approaches orbital velocity with respect to that center. In simpler words, the centrifugal force tends to balance the gravitational pull of the central mass, and secondary centers of condensation are formed which are in orbit about the principal mass. These secondary condensations are usually very, small in proportion to the main mass, just as the main mass is small in proportion to the galaxy.
(In extreme cases, the condensing cloud may divide into two or more roughly equal parts, each of which becomes a separate star, but which then arc in rotation about a common center of gravity.
It is in the smaller condensations however, that we are particularly interested at this point.)
These smaller bodies which, in the case of our solar system, we have named 'planets,' will always be found to contain a much larger proportion of the heavier atoms, than will be found in the body of the star.
The reasons for this fact become obvious from our previous examination of atomic behavior. In the first place, we have seen that the lighter atom has a higher velocity at a given temperature, and so will reach escape velocity from a given body at a lower temperature. The condensations which result in planetary bodies, being comparatively small, do not reach the very high temperatures found in the stars, but they do reach temperatures sufficiently high to cause most of the lighter particles to reach escape velocity from the relatively small gravitational field.
Because the body is small, and the temperature low, such nuclear reactions as may occur under these circumstances do not furnish sufficient energy to replace that which is radiated, and the planet soon begins to cool.
A solid crust forms upon the surface, and the elements begin to combine in countless molecular patterns. When the surface has reached a sufficiently low temperature, the stage is set for the creation of the amino-acids which are generally conceded to be the starting point in the development of the organic forms to which we refer collectively as 'life'. The process is a delicate one, and only a small percentage of the planets may develop conditions suitable for this type of synthesis. It is also possible that the process may take place upon only a small percentage of those planets which do have suitable conditions. Yet, among the tens of billions of planets in a single galaxy, it is a virtual certainty, from a statistical standpoint, that synthesis will occur upon at least a few hundred, or perhaps a few thousand planets. (If we assume that the creation of life is directed by Divine Will, then the number might be much larger.) If we wished to follow the development of these first life forms through all of the stages of evolution required to produce a sentient being, we might have to wait for a period of time as long as that required for the formation of the galaxy, but eventually such a genus would appear. A race of beings capable of originating complex thought patterns, followed by equally complex actions.
Sooner or later, such a race would tire of its confinement upon a single planet, and would seek means to broaden the scope of its investigations, and of its movements.
Having achieved space travel, the race would proceed to radiate in all directions from its point of origin, investigating many planets, and perhaps colonizing some of those which were suitable for life but upon which life had not yet developed.

We must recall at this point, that it is the central spheroid of the galaxy which is formed first. It is in the central portion, that planets would first reach conditions suitable for life, and it is upon these planets that life would first achieve a high degree of development. Intelligent life might therefore be said to radiate from the center of a galaxy outward toward the periphery. A process which might take place over a period of several millions of years after the first race had achieved space travel.
It is with this thought, and in a very humble frame of mind that we begin our return journey to our tiny planet earth; located almost on the extreme outer edge of our own galaxy.

Black Hole Measurements and Delusions
Where is that cotton pickin curve?
(i.e.: Radius of Curvature of all Natural Law)

Illusions Delusions and Real









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Circumference speed of black hole ....................Light Speed
20,000 miles per sec ....................................... 186,282.40 miles per sec
1,200,000 miles per min ................................ 11,176,944 miles per min
72,000,000 miles per hr ................................. 670,616,629 miles per hr


A line showing the speed of light on a scale model of Earth and the Moon, about 1.2 seconds.



The approximate value of 3×108 m/s is commonly used in rough estimates. In imperial units, the speed of light is about 670,616,629.2 miles per hour or 983,571,056 feet per second, which is about 186,282.397 miles per second, or roughly one foot per nanosecond.
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A Race Round a Black Hole
So you think rockets are fast? Scientists have spotted something going much faster. Like state troopers on a highway, these scientists used a "speed gun" to clock clumps of hot iron gas whipping around a black hole at 20,000 miles per second. That's over 10 percent of light speed.At this speed, you could get to the moon in about 10 seconds. The black hole's extreme pull of gravity is causing the gas to move so quickly. Image to left: This animation depicts three hot blobs of matter orbiting a black hole. If placed in our Solar System, this black hole would appear like a dark abyss spread out nearly as wide as Mercury's orbit. And the three blobs (each as large as the Sun) would be as far out as Jupiter. They orbit the black hole in a lightning-quick 20,000 miles per second, over a tenth of the speed of light. Click on image to view animation. Click here for a high resolution still from the animation (9.8 MB) Credit: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks DigitalDr. Jane Turner of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center led the observation. She used a satellite launched by the European Space Agency called XMM-Newton. She said that this kind of measurement has never been done before."For years we have seen only the general commotion caused by massive black holes, that is, a terrific outpouring of light," Dr. Turner said. "We could not track the specifics. Now we can filter through all that light and find patterns that reveal information about black holes never seen before in such clarity."This is big news for black hole hunters because the observation marks the first time scientists could trace individual blobs of shredded matter on a complete journey around a black hole. This provides a crucial measurement that has long been missing from black hole studies: an orbital period. Knowing this, scientists can measure black hole mass and other characteristics that have long eluded them.Black holes are regions in space so dense that gravity prevents all matter and light from escaping. What scientists see is not the black hole itself but rather the light emitted close to it as matter falls towards the black hole and heats to high temperatures.Image to right: This is a simplified illustration of two hot blobs orbiting a black hole, showing how scientists tracked the blobs by observing their Doppler shift. First, we see one blob. Note how the energy emitted from this orbiting material rises to about 6.5 kilo-electron volts (an energy unit) as it moves towards us, and then falls to about 5.8 kilo-electron volts as it moves away. This is the Doppler effect, the same phenomenon that law officers exploit to nab speeders on a highway. Matter goes round and round; energy goes up and down. About 14 seconds into the animation, the artist adds a second blob which also displays a rise and fall in energy during its orbit. Click on image to view animation. Click here for high resolution still from animation (3.0 MB). Credit: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks DigitalIf this black hole were placed in our Solar System, it would appear like a dark abyss spread out nearly as wide as Mercury's orbit. And the clumps of matter detected would be as far out as Jupiter. The clumps orbit the black hole in a lightning-quick 27 hours (compared to the 12 years it takes Jupiter to orbit the Sun).But this black hole is far, far away. Dr. Turner's team observed it in a well-known galaxy named Markarian 766, about 170 million light years away in the constellation Coma Berenices (Bernice's Hair). The black hole in Markarian 766 is relatively small although highly active. Its mass is a few million times that of the Sun. Other central black hole systems are over 100 million solar masses.Matter funnels into this black hole like water swirling down a drain, forming what scientists call an accretion disk. Flares erupt on this disk most likely when magnetic field lines emanating from the central black hole interact with regions on the disk. Zap! These flares are very hot. They glow in X-ray light, which is thousands of times more energetic that the visible light our eyes can detect. XMM-Newton is a special kind of telescope that can detect X-ray light, but not visible light. The Hubble Space Telescope, on the other hand, detects visible and ultraviolet light, but not X rays."Calculating the speeds of the flares and the black hole mass was straightforward, based on Doppler shifting, the technique used by law officers to nab speeders." said Dr. Ian George of NASA Goddard. (Both Drs. Turner and George hold teaching positions at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County.) "Light appears to rise in energy as an object moves towards us and then fall in energy as it moves away. A similar phenomenon happens with the sound of a passing car on a highway, going 'eeeeeeyyoool.'"When the scientists made a graph of energy (on the y-axis) and time (on the x-axis), they saw near-perfect sinusoidal curves from each of the three clumps of matter they observed. Up and down, up and down. The width (or period) of the curves is proportional to black hole mass. The height (or amplitude) of the curves is related to the viewing angle of the accretion disk. With a known mass and orbital period, the scientists could determine velocity using the relatively simple and traditional physics of Isaac Newton. Scientists do these kinds of measurements in the Solar System all the time. For example, if the Sun were bigger or if the Earth were closer to the Sun, our orbit would be faster because the tug of gravity would be stronger. That is, mass, distance and gravity dictate the speed and shape of orbits. Knowing one set of information helps you determine the other.Two factors made the black hole measurement possible. The scientists observed particularly persistent flares during a long observation, nearly 27 hours. Also, no telescope before XMM-Newton has had the light-collecting power to allow for a comparison of energy over time.Dr. Turner said this observation confirms a preliminary XMM-Newton result announced by a European team in September -- that something as detailed as an orbital period could be detected with the current generation of X-ray telescopes. The combination of results indicates that scientists, given long observation times, are now able to make careful black hole measurements and even test general relativity in the domain of extreme gravity.And moving 20,000 miles per second, these blobs around the black hole are taking scientists on an exciting ride.For additional graphs and information about the story presented above, click here.For the press release that was issued by NASA on this, click here.
Dr. Jane TurnerImage to left: Dr. Jane TurnerJane Turner is an expert on active galactic nuclei, which concerns those galaxies such as quasars thought to contain an actively accreting supermassive black hole at their cores. She currently holds joint affiliations as a Research Associate Professor in the physics department at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), and as a research scientist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. At UMBC she teaches Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology and introductory astronomy. She first came to NASA Goddard in 1988 to study X-ray emission from active galaxies. Her work has entailed analysis of data from a large variety of X-ray instruments on U.S. satellites and from U.S. collaborative missions worldwide. Highlights include supporting the Broad Band X-ray Telescope (BBXRT) mission as timeline planner, when it flew on shuttle mission STS-35, and being awarded a five-year NASA research grant in 1997. With Dr. Kirpal Nandra she has constructed a large archive database of reduced spectra, images and light curves of ASCA observations of active galaxies, known as the TARTARUS project, freely available on the Internet at http://tartarus.gsfc.nasa.gov. Dr. Turner received her B.S. in Mathematics with Astronomy in 1984 and her Ph.D. in Astronomy in 1988, both from the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom.Dr. Lance MillerImage to left: Dr. Lance MillerLance Miller teaches physics and astrophysics at Oxford University. His research focuses on studying the largest-scale structures in the universe through the distribution of active galaxies and quasars, as well as the phenomenon of supermassive black hole accretion. Dr. Miller obtained his Ph.D. in astrophysics from Cambridge University in 1983 and also worked at the Royal Observatory Edinburgh and the University of Edinburgh before moving to Oxford in 1996.Christopher WanjekGoddard Space Flight Center
Find this article at
:http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/universe/blackhole_race.html

Astronomers Measure Mass Of Smallest Black Hole In A Galactic Nucleus
NGC 4395. (Photo credit: Allan Sandage, Carnegie Institution)
ScienceDaily (Mar. 2, 2005) — Washington, DC - A group led by astronomers from Ohio State University and the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have measured the mass of a unique black hole, and determined that it is the smallest found so far.
Early results indicate that the black hole weighs in at less than a million times the mass of our sun -– which would make it as much as 100 times smaller than others of its type.
To get their measurement, astronomers used NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and a technique similar to Doppler radar -- the method that meteorologists use to track weather systems.
The black hole lies 14 million light-years away, in the center of the galaxy NGC 4395. One light-year is the distance light travels in one year -- approximately six trillion miles.
Astronomers consider NGC 4395 to be an “active galaxy,” one with a very bright center, or nucleus. Current theory holds that black holes may literally be consuming active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Black holes in AGNs are supposed to be very massive.
NGC 4395 appears to be special, because the black hole in the center of the galaxy is much smaller than those found in other active galaxies, explained Ari Laor, professor of astronomy at the Technion, in Haifa, Israel, and Brad Peterson, professor of astronomy at Ohio State.
While astronomers have found much evidence of black holes that are larger than a million solar masses or smaller than a few tens of solar masses, they haven’t found as many midsize black holes -- ones on the scale of hundreds or thousands of solar masses.
Black holes such as the one in NGC 4395 provide a step in closing that gap.
Laor and Peterson and their colleagues used the Doppler radar-like technique to track the movement of gas around the center of NGC 4395. Whereas radar bounces a radio frequency signal off of an object, the astronomers observed light signals that naturally emanated from the center of the galaxy, and timed how long those signals took to reach the orbiting gas.
The method is called reverberation mapping, and Peterson’s team is among a small number of groups who are developing it as a reliable means of measuring black hole masses. The method works because gas orbits faster around massive black holes than it does around smaller ones.
Peterson reported the early results Saturday at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington, DC.
Two of the team members -- Luis Ho of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and Alex Fillippenko of the University of California, Berkeley -- were the first to suspect that the black hole mass was very small. Filippenko and Wallace L.W. Sargent of the California Institute of Technology first discovered the black hole in 1989.
This is the first time astronomers have been able to measure the mass of the black hole in NGC 4395, and confirm that it is indeed smaller than others of its kind.
Peterson and Laor emphasized that the results are very preliminary, but the black hole seems to be at least a hundred times smaller than any other black hole ever detected inside an AGN.
The astronomers want to refine that estimate before they address the next most logical question: why is the black hole so small?
“Is it the runt of the litter, or did it just happen to form under special circumstances? We don’t know yet,” Peterson said.
NGC 4395 doesn’t appear to have a dense spherical nucleus, called a galactic bulge, at its center; it could be that the black hole “ate” all the stars in the bulge, and doesn’t have any more food within reach. That would keep the black hole from growing.
Team members are most interested in what the black hole measurement can tell astronomers about AGNs in general. Any new information could help astronomers better understand the role that black holes play in making galaxies like our own form and evolve. To that end, the team is also studying related data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based telescopes.
“It’s these extreme types of objects that really allow you to test your theories,” Peterson said.
Adapted from materials provided by
Ohio State University.
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Black Hole Food


















http://science.hq.nasa.gov/universe/science/black_holes.html
What Happens at the Edge of a Black Hole?
Overview Galaxies Stars Black Holes Astrobio Big Bang Dark Energy Fate
Don't let the name fool you: A black hole is anything but empty space. Rather, it is a great amount of matter packed into a very small area - think of a star ten times more massive than the Sun squeezed into a sphere approximately the diameter of New York City. The result is a gravitational field so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape. In recent years, NASA instruments have painted a new picture of these strange objects that are, to many, the most fascinating objects in space.
This star-studded infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the Milky Way's churning center. In this false-color image, old, cool stars appear blue, and the dust near hot, massive stars is red. Astronomers believe there is a supermassive black hole in the galaxy's core, visible here as a bright white spot. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/S. Stolovy (SSC/Caltech).
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Although the term was not coined until 1967 by Princeton physicist John Wheeler, the idea of an object in space so massive and dense that light could not escape it has been around for centuries. Most famously, black holes were predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity, which showed that when a massive star dies, it leaves behind a small, dense remnant core. If the core's mass is more than about three times the mass of the Sun, the equations showed, the force of gravity overwhelms all other forces and produces a black hole.
When a massive star runs out of fuel, as this animation shows, the core collapses and forms a black hole. Scientists long thought that the explosion would be followed by an afterglow of dying embers, but new evidence from the Swift telescope indicates that a newborn black hole somehow re-energizes the explosion again and again, creating multiple bursts of energy in a few minutes. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Dana Berry. [+ more]
Scientists can't directly observe black holes with telescopes that detect X-rays, light, or other forms of electromagnetic radiation. We can, however, infer the presence of black holes and study their effects on surrounding space with telescopes such as NASA's space-based Chandra X-ray Observatory. If a black hole passes through a cloud of interstellar matter, or is near a star, it will draw matter inward in a process known as accretion. As the attracted matter accelerates and heats up, it emits X-rays that radiate into space.
Recent discoveries offer some tantalizing evidence that black holes have a dramatic influence on surrounding space -- emitting powerful gamma ray bursts, devouring nearby stars, spurring the growth of new stars in some areas and stalling it in others
.
One Star's End is a Black Hole's Beginning
Most black holes form from the remnants of a large star that dies in a supernova explosion. (Smaller stars become dense neutron stars, which are not massive enough to trap light.) If the total mass of the star is large enough (about 3 times the mass of the sun), then it may be proven theoretically that no force can keep the star from collapsing under the influence of gravity. However, as the star collapses, a strange thing occurs. As the surface of the stars nears an imaginary surface called the "event horizon", time on the star slows down relative to the time kept by observers far away. When the surface reaches the event horizon, time stands still and the star may collapse no more. It is a frozen collapsing object.
Even bigger black holes can result from stellar collisions. Soon after its launch in December 2004, NASA's
Swift telescope observed the powerful, fleeting flashes of light known as gamma ray bursts. Chandra and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope later collected data from the event's "afterglow," and together the observations led astronomers to conclude that the powerful explosions can result when a black hole and a neutron star collide, producing another black hole.
Babies and Giants
Although the basic formation process is understood, one perennial mystery in the science of black holes is that they appear to exist on two radically different size scales. On one end, there are the countless black holes that are the remnants of massive stars. Peppered throughout the universe, these "stellar mass" black holes are generally 10 to 20 times as massive as the Sun. Astronomers spot them when another star draws near enough for some of the matter surrounding it to be snared by the black hole's gravity, churning out X-rays in the process. Most stellar black holes, however, lead isolated lives and are impossible to detect. Judging from the number of stars large enough to produce such black holes, however, scientists estimate that there are as many as ten million to a billion such black holes in the Milky Way alone.
On the other side of the size spectrum are the beastly giants known as "supermassive" black holes, which are millions, if not billions, of times as massive as the Sun. Astronomers believe that supermassive black holes lie at the center of many large galaxies, even our own
Milky Way. Astronomers can detect them by watching for the telltale ways they affect nearby stars and gas.
For decades, most researchers have believed that black holes came in two sizes: the mass of a few stars, or the mass of a million stars or more. These two previously undiscovered black holes provide an important link that sheds light on the way in which black holes grow. The black hole in M15 (left) is 4,000 times more massive than our Sun. G1 (right), a much larger globular cluster, harbors a heftier black hole, about 20,000 times more massive than our Sun.
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In 1997, the Hubble Space Telescope's was equipped with an instrument that separates visible light into various wavelengths, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). Measurements by STIS can reveal the speed and other properties of gas as it swirls into a black hole, which in turn reveals certain characteristics about the black hole itself - its mass, for example, and how fast it is spinning. It is these observations from Hubble that show that most, possibly all, large galaxies are home to a churning black hole. One black hole, 50 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo, has been calculated to have a mass equal to about three billion Suns.
The matter surrounding a stellar black hole - known as the accretion disk - is made of gas and dust. Around a supermassive black hole in the middle of a galaxy, this disk can include stars as well. In 2004, data from Chandra offered scientists their first-ever glimpse of a black hole
shredding a nearby star.
This illustration shows two merging galaxies, an event that triggers a burst of star formation and provides fuel for the supermassive black holes in each galaxy's center. The inset shows a Chandra image of two central black holes -- about 70,000 light years apart - in merging galaxies. The varying colors represent differences in X-ray absorption by gas and dust around the black holes. Credit: CXC/M.Weiss.
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Later that year, Chandra spotted two supermassive black holes orbiting in the same galaxy - and therefore doomed to collide. And in October 2005, Chandra revealed a series of stars thought to have been spawned by the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way.
The Future of Black Hole Science
So far, there has been no direct evidence for mid-sized black holes. The question is, why not? Historically, scientists have believed simply that no such black holes exist, but recent observations have led some astronomers to think otherwise. The question of whether black holes of intermediate mass exist is a subject of much current research.
The current generation of space-based telescopes do not possess the resolution to directly image mass falling into a black hole, but NASA hopes that future instruments will. The
Black Hole Imager mission will detect high-frequency radio waves and X-rays emitted during accretion - the process by which a black hole sucks matter inward - to measure the properties of gas as it swirls into black holes. Astronomers hope to test some of the more exotic predictions of general relativity theory by comparing to these direct measurements of accretion.
The Black Hole Imager is part of NASA's ambitious
"Beyond Einstein" program, which will take a census of black holes in the Universe and provide detailed pictures of what happens in the surrounding regions of space. In tandem with the Black Hole Imager, four X-ray telescopes comprising the Constellation-X observatory be 100 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray satellite mission. As a result, scientists will collect unprecedented amounts of data in a fraction of the time it would take with current X-ray telescopes such as Chandra.
Another key mission,
LISA, will look for black holes in a completely different way. In a sense, looking at the accretion disk around a black hole is not really seeing the black hole itself. A black hole is the mass it contains plus the intense gravitational field around it. When two black holes orbit each other, their accelerated masses directly create gravitational waves that stream away through space and carry information about the masses and strong fields that created them. Gravitational waves are waves of space curvature and may be detected by missions such as LISA through the way they affect the geometry of space at the location of the detector. LISA will "see" black holes.
Are there intermediate-mass black holes? Do the supermassive black holes at galactic nuclei grow by accretion? Do nuclear black holes precede and act as seeds for the formation of galaxies or are they formed after the galaxy as it collapses toward its dynamical center? Do all galaxies contain black holes? Do the mergers of galaxies and the subsequent coalescence of their black holes contribute to galactic evolution? These questions and more will be answered by the Beyond Einstein Mission suite. But there is also one thing you may be sure of when you open up a new window on the Universe. There will be surprises and more questions to ask.

Greedy Supermassive Black Holes Dislike Dark Matter

Written by Ian O'Neill

It is widely accepted that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) sit in the centre of elliptical galaxies or bulges of spiral galaxies. They suck in as much matter as possible, generating blasts of radiation. Stars, gas and everything else nearby forms a compact "halo" and then falls to a gravitationally enforced death spiral. The greedy nature and the sheer size of these black holes have led to the idea that dark matter may supply (or may have supplied) the SMBH with some mass during its evolution. But could it be that dark matter may not be significantly involved after all? This might be one cosmic phenomenon dark matter can't be blamed for.Black hole accretion disks are compact halos created as dust, gas and other debris are pulled toward a black hole event horizon. Accretion disks radiate electromagnetic radiation, and the frequency of which depends on the mass of the black hole. The more massive it is, the higher the energy of radiation emitted into space. In the case of a SMBH, the huge mass causes very bright emission as the matter from the accretion disk falls into the event horizon (the point at which gravity becomes so strong that even light cannot escape). As accretion disk matter falls toward the event horizon, approximately 10% of the mass is converted into energy and ejected as X-rays. This is a far more efficient energy conversion rate than the most efficient nuclear fusion reaction (approximately 0.5%). This X-ray emission can then be observed, creating a quasar, signifying a SMBH is driving the active galaxy.Interestingly, an SMBH is not thought to be formed from single dead massive star. They are thought to have been created from a "seed" and then grown over billions of years. The source of the mass feeding the growing SMBH comes from its accretion disk, but it is uncertain what form the matter comes in and at what rate it "feeds" the black hole. There are several possibilities as to how the largest black holes were seeded, but two are the most widely accepted:a.. Intermediate black holes (with masses of several thousand Suns) are created by vast clouds which collapse to a single point. Black holes form and accretion disks grow. b.. Massive primordial stars (the first stars, formed only 200 million years after the Big Bang) of a few hundred Sun masses may have collapsed to create smaller black holes, again forming accretion disks and growing over billions of years. The mechanisms affecting the rate of accretion disk growth are not so clear-cut. Some theories suggest that huge quantities (most of the black hole mass) comes from dark matter. However, as dark matter is "non-baryonic" (i.e. the opposite to baryonic matter - the matter we know, love and observe in our universe) it will emit very little radiation as it falls into the black hole event horizon. If this is the case, SMBHs would grow disproportionately when compared with radiation emitted from galactic centres (only baryonic particles will emit X-rays).New research headed by Sebastien Peirani (at the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France) suggests only a very small fraction of a SMBH is composed from dark matter as it evolved. Dark matter is predicted to be collisionless and will be scattered very easily by baryonic gas clouds and stars. It seems unlikely that dark matter will be able to stay inside the black hole's accretion disk for very long before it is repelled by all the "normal" matter being pulled toward the event horizon.

THE NONLINEARITY OF PHYSICAL LAW:

Illusions Delusions and Real



The series of mathematical formula which Albert Einstein gave to the world in 1905, he called "A Theory of Special Relativity". Einstein brought to our attention that the factors of Gravity, Space, Time and Energy were not absolute and independent entities, but that they were variable factors, each having a value which depended upon the value of others. Thus the first faint light of understanding began to filter through the dense screen of absolute determinism which had been erected about the physical science.

Unfortunately, science, instead of pursuing this bright gleam of truth, attempted, from force of habit, to mold it into the common pattern of knowledge, by reducing it to a mathematical formula, which could be used without the necessity of understanding it.

Special Relativity was made into a "universal law of absolutes".

We have ignored the forward with which Einstein prefaced the mathematics, and so have created the very thought blocks which he hoped to prevent. We will refer to this problem later on, but it might be wise first, to devote a little time to the consideration of what we will call "the non linearity of physical law".

A few decades ago, our physical laws were considered to be linear. That is: we had, by trial and
error, by observation and test, developed a set of laws which apparently held true for all of the small segment of nature, which we were able to observe at the time. We assumed, therefore, that these laws would hold true in any segment of nature, no matter how far removed from our point of observation.

green or pink balls (look to center)


When, however, the study of physics moved into the microcosm, that is, when we began to examine the interior of the atom, we found there a set of laws which did not agree with those to which we had been accustomed. They too appeared to be linear, but operated at an angle to our established laws.

The same disturbing situation was discovered in the macrocosm. When our astronomers developed the giant telescope capable of peering many millions of light years into space, they found there, still another set of laws operating apparently at an angle to both of the others.

For a time, we attempted to accustom ourselves to the existence of three sets of physical laws, each set linear within its own range of observation, but each set operating angularly with respect to the others. Then, with the development of the principles of relativity, we began to realize, or at least we should have realized, that these different sets of linear laws were not actually linear, nor were they different sets of laws. They were simply three widely separated segments of the one great curve of natural law.

StarSteps http://www.fuel2000.net/starsteps.htm

As long as we were dealing with quantities which could be observed with the unaided eye or with simple instruments, we were unable to detect the curvature, because the segment we were observing constituted such a tiny portion of the curve that its deviation from linearity was too slight to be detected.

For most practical purposes connected with the ordinary mechanics of our daily lives, these laws are still considered to be linear. Calculations are simpler when they are so considered, and the resulting error is negligible.

For the same reason, a surveyor who is surveying a small residence lot does not find it necessary to take into consideration the curvature of the earth, because the error resulting from this
neglect is not detectable even by the most sensitive of his instruments. If, however, the surveyor is to make accurate measurements of large areas such as a State or a Continent, it does become imperative to consider the curvature of the earth's surface, and to do this, of course, it is necessary to have a reasonably accurate knowledge of the radius of that curvature.

The necessity of an accurate determination of the radius of curvature of the natural laws was first realized perhaps by the late Dr. Einstein, who devoted a large part of his life's work to this problem. The results which he obtained have filled a number of text books, and have been of inestimable value in the progress of the physical science.

They proved to be the key which opened the door to the utilization of nuclear energy, and have many other implications which are sensed but not yet completely understood.

As soon as a successful effort is made to reduce these mathematical formulae to simple concepts
easily grasped by the mind, these concepts, together with the additional truths which will then become self evident, will open the door to space travel with a surety and ease which we would now find hardly possible even to imagine.

The difficulty with our present mathematical approach to the problem of relativity lies not in any error of the mathematics themselves, but in the fact that the methods and terms used in the attempt to explain them, often lead to incorrect thinking and assumptions.

For example: the best known formula perhaps, which has emerged from the study of relativity, is the expression E =MC2, which simply states that the quantity of energy (in ergs) which is inherent in any mass, is equal to the number of grams of that mass, multiplied by the square of the quantity C.

The quantity C is considered to be a constant, in fact the only constant which has survived in a relativistic world.

In almost every text book on physics in the world today the statement is made that the quantity C represents the velocity of light (in centimeters per second), yet every student in the world who has studied the subject, knows that the velocity of light is not a constant. That its velocity, in fact, varies slightly with each different medium through which it is propagated.

Any student who has ever passed a beam of sunlight through a prism to produce a spectrum of color, has demonstrated that not only does the velocity of light vary in different media, but that the change in velocity varies somewhat with the frequency of the light when propagated in material media. This of course is the principal upon which all of our spectroscopes are designed, although most textbooks state merely that the light is refracted or `bent' in passing from one medium to another.

There are many who will dispute the statement that the change in velocity varies with the frequency, but when sufficiently precise tests are made entirely within a single medium, the results indicate convincingly that this is true.

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At this point most students will remark that the quantity C refers to the velocity of light in a perfect vacuum, but where in the universe can we find a perfect vacuum in which to test this assertion?

Astronomers and physicists have estimated that even in the remotest depths of intergalactic space there will probably be found, from three to seven nuclear or atomic particles per cubic centimeter. A beam of light traveling at approximately 3x10(10) centimeters per second would still encounter a rather large number of such particles during each second of its journey.

While it is true that the proportionate decrease in velocity which would be produced by this minute concentration of matter is so small that it might be negligible for all practical purposes of measurement, nevertheless it demonstrates the fact that we have chosen as our sole remaining constant, a quantity which actually can never be a perfect constant anywhere in the known universe.

Fortunately there is a value to which the quantity C can be assigned which is a constant.

Moreover the assignment of the quantity C to this factor makes possible a much better understanding of the natural laws involved in the propagation of energy.

The quantity C is actually the kinetic energy equivalent of the mass energy of matter.

In other words, if we take a gram (or any other quantity of matter: Newtonian mass) and convert that matter gradually into energy according to the formula E = MC2, and the resultant energy, as it appeared, were constantly applied to the remaining matter in such a way as to accelerate it uniformly in a given direction, when all the matter had been so converted we would find that we had zero Newtonian mass, infinite inertial mass and a resultant velocity equal to the quantity C, or approximately 3x10(10) centimeters per second (with respect to the given reference or starting point).

The maximum velocity attained would always be the same regardless of the quantity of matter with which we started. This is a fact which can easily be verified by anyone who is mathematically inclined, and who is familiar with the laws of acceleration.

The energy required to accelerate each gram of mass to the velocity C through energy conversion is exactly equal to total energy inherent in any matter having that mass.

This fact forms the true basis of the statement in our present day physics that the velocity C is a
maximum or limiting velocity, since it represents the greatest kinetic energy differential which can exist between two given reference points.

Since a good understanding of this concept is of great importance, it will be referred to again, and discussed more fully in the chapters on energy and matter.

Another assumption in the theories of relativity given to the world by Dr. Einstein, the natural laws, in general, are assumed to be linear, but the space in which they operate is considered to be "curved".

This concept offers the simplest mathematical presentation, since all of the deviations from linearity can thus be explained by a single postulate.

Unfortunately, like most of our mathematical presentations, the concept offers but little for the mind to grasp. A curved space cannot be pictured mentally, nor can it be drawn upon paper. The question always arises, if space is inside the curve, what is outside?

We have discovered that the linear mathematics which we commonly apply to the >laws= or rules of nature, do not hold true when carried to an extent which permits the error to be measured, because they do not follow a straight line reaching to infinity, but a curve of finite radii.

In a timeless universe, this curve, in any given plane, would be represented by a circle, but since the laws operate through time as well as space, the curve may be more readily understood if depicted as a "sine curve" or "wave".

The "base" line of the wave (which is the center line of the curve) represents zero, and the portions above and below the line represent the positive and negative aspects of the law.

StarSteps http://www.fuel2000.net/starsteps.htm (10 of 16) [9/16/2003 10:40:45 PM]

Thus we see that there are points and conditions in which the natural laws reach zero value with
respect to a given reference point, and that beyond these points the laws become negative, reversing their effect with respect to the observer.

The constant repetition of the term "reference point" or "observer" is necessary to emphasize the frequently unrecognized fact that none of the basic factors of nature have any reality or significance except when considered from a specified position or condition.

If, therefore, we exchange the existing mathematical postulate of linear laws operating in a curved space, for a concept based upon the curvature of natural law, we will find that we have not invalidated or changed any of the presently accepted mathematics which we apply to these concepts. They can still be applied in the same way, and will give the same results.

By the exchange, however, we will have achieved a position from which the operation of the natural laws can be pictured by the mind, and can be charted upon paper.

Our new perspective will allow us to take the mathematics past the velocity of light and infinite mass limit, past the disabled negative leg of gravity, and past the inappropriate explanations of our positive and negative mathematical frames of reference.

It will take us past our delimits threatening our future (resource wars, ecological imbalance, global warming caused by a stagnant energy base) and permit widespread application.

And there is no more beautiful experience than when the world expands beyond its accustomed limits and reopens the door to continued natural survival and evolution of humanity. Those are moments when reality takes on splendor.